By Franco Maloberti (auth.)
Analog layout for CMOS VLSI Systems is a finished textual content that provides an in depth learn of the heritage rules and the analog layout strategies for CMOS-VLSI implementation. The ebook covers the actual operation and the modelling of MOS transistors. Discusses the foremost beneficial properties of built-in passive parts and reviews uncomplicated construction blocks and voltage and present references ahead of contemplating in nice info the layout of op-amps and comparators.
The booklet is basically meant to be used as a graduate-level textbook and for training engineers. it truly is anticipated that the reader will be acquainted with the innovations taught in uncomplicated introductory classes in analog circuits. counting on that right history wisdom the booklet provides the cloth on an intuitive foundation with a minimal use of mathematical quantitative research. as a result, the perception prompted by way of the ebook will favour that sort of information collecting required for the layout of high-performance analog circuits. The booklet favours this crucial method with a couple of inserts supplying tricks or advises on key positive factors of the subject studied.
An attention-grabbing peculiarity of the ebook is using numbers. The equations describing the circuit operation are directions for the dressmaker. it is very important investigate performances in a quantitative manner. to accomplish this aim the publication offers a few examples on desktop simulations utilizing Spice. in addition, so that it will collect the sensation of the technological development, 3 various hypothetical applied sciences are addressed and used.
Detailed examples and the various difficulties make Analog layout for CMOS VLSI Systems a finished textbook for a graduate-level direction on analog circuit layout. furthermore, the booklet will successfully serve the sensible wishes of quite a lot of circuit layout and method layout engineers.
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Extra resources for Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems
The design rules take into account the limited accuracy of the technology. Among them, the limits deriving from mask alignment, mask non-linearities, lateral diffusion, etching undercut, optical resolution and diffraction, and others. The design rules pursue an optimum trade off between performance and yield. If for example, a given tech- 54 The MOS Transistor nology allows the contact and the metal masks to be aligned within a given accuracy, the width of the metal line placed over the contact must be suitably wide to ensure that the contact is overlapped even in the worst case of misalignment: just one missing contact in the circuit can be responsible for a catastrophic failure.
Moreover, they are proportional to the area of the junction. We shall see that suitable folding of the transistor layout allows us to reduce the drain and the source contact area while ensuring an acceptable value of and The most important element of the equivalent circuit is the voltage controlled current source Its value depends on the voltages applied to gate, source, drain and bulk, according to the expressions derived in the previous section for the three regions of operation: sub-threshold, saturation and linear.
The two structures are connected in parallel, using a cross connection. In addition to this point, it is worth anticipating a potential problem that will be discussed in detail in the next chapter: asymmetries associated with the undercut effect in the presence of different boundary conditions. This can result in the small differences between the width of boundary transistors in the stack shown in Fig. We shall that this problem can be in general alleviated using dummy elements. A final point worth discussing concerns the biasing of substrate or of the well.
Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems by Franco Maloberti (auth.)