Download e-book for iPad: An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography by Jeffrey Hoffstein, Jill Pipher, Joseph H. Silverman

By Jeffrey Hoffstein, Jill Pipher, Joseph H. Silverman

ISBN-10: 0387779930

ISBN-13: 9780387779935

ISBN-10: 0387779949

ISBN-13: 9780387779942

An advent to Mathematical Cryptography offers an advent to public key cryptography and underlying arithmetic that's required for the topic. all the 8 chapters expands on a selected quarter of mathematical cryptography and gives an intensive checklist of exercises.

It is an appropriate textual content for complicated scholars in natural and utilized arithmetic and desktop technology, or the e-book can be used as a self-study. This e-book additionally offers a self-contained therapy of mathematical cryptography for the reader with constrained mathematical background.

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6. Of course, this cannot be true for all values of a, since if a is a multiple of 7, then so are all of its powers, so in that case an ≡ 0 (mod 7). On the other hand, if a is not divisible by 7, then a is congruent to one of the values 1, 2, 3, . . , 6 modulo 7. Hence a6 ≡ 1 0 (mod 7) (mod 7) if 7 a, if 7 | a. Further experiments with other primes suggest that this example reflects a general fact. 25 (Fermat’s Little Theorem). Let p be a prime number and let a be any integer. Then ap−1 ≡ 1 0 (mod p) (mod p) if p a, if p | a.

Of course, this cannot be true for all values of a, since if a is a multiple of 7, then so are all of its powers, so in that case an ≡ 0 (mod 7). On the other hand, if a is not divisible by 7, then a is congruent to one of the values 1, 2, 3, . . , 6 modulo 7. Hence a6 ≡ 1 0 (mod 7) (mod 7) if 7 a, if 7 | a. Further experiments with other primes suggest that this example reflects a general fact. 25 (Fermat’s Little Theorem). Let p be a prime number and let a be any integer. Then ap−1 ≡ 1 0 (mod p) (mod p) if p a, if p | a.

Earlier defined the order of p in a to be the exponent of p when a is factored into primes. Thus unfortunately, the word “order” has two different meanings. You will need to judge which one is meant from the context. 5. Powers and primitive roots in finite fields 33 Proof. Let k be the order of a modulo p, so by definition ak ≡ 1 (mod p), and k is the smallest positive exponent with this property. We are given that an ≡ 1 (mod p). We divide n by k to obtain with 0 ≤ r < k. n = kq + r Then 1 ≡ an ≡ akq+r ≡ (ak )r · ar ≡ 1r · ar ≡ ar (mod p).

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An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography by Jeffrey Hoffstein, Jill Pipher, Joseph H. Silverman


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